Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is an interesting example of synaptic plasticity because of its induction by physiological discharge rates and its long duration. Of the possible biochemical mechanisms that regulate prolonged changes in cell function, protein phosphorylation is a particularly attractive candidate. We have therefore examined the effect of intracellular injection of calcium/diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C (PKC] in CA1 pyramidal neurones in hippocampal slices. Injection of the active enzyme elicited long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission, similar to LTP, whereas inactivated kinase failed to do so. The observed changes included an increased amplitude of the excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) and an increased probability of firing and a reduced latency of the associated actin potential.