Extraction of Acetogenins Using Thermosonication-Assisted Extraction from Annona muricata Seeds and Their Antifungal Activity

Molecules. 2022 Sep 16;27(18):6045. doi: 10.3390/molecules27186045.


The objective of this work was to find the optimal conditions by thermosonication-assisted extraction (TSAE) of the total acetogenin content (TAC) and yield from A. muricata seeds, assessing the effect of the temperature (40, 50, and 60 °C), sonication amplitude (80, 90, and 100%), and pulse-cycle (0.5, 0.7, and 1 s). In addition, optimal TSAE conditions of acetogenins (ACGs) were compared with extraction by ultrasound at 25 °C and the soxhlet method measuring TAC and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, solubility and identification of isolated ACGs were performed. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of ACGs crude extract and isolated ACGs was evaluated. Optimal TSAE conditions to extract the highest TAC (35.89 mg/g) and yield (3.6%) were 50 °C, 100% amplitude, and 0.5 s pulse-cycle. TSAE was 2.17-fold and 15.60-fold more effective than ultrasound at 25 °C and the Soxhlet method to extract ACGs with antioxidant capacity. Isolated ACGs were mostly soluble in acetone and methanol. Seven ACGs were identified, and pseudoannonacin was the most abundant. The inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis was higher from isolated ACGs than crude extract. TSAE was effective to increase the yield in the ACGs extraction from A. muricata seeds and these ACGs have important antifungal activity.

Keywords: A. muricata seeds; acetogenins; thermosonication-assisted extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Acetogenins / pharmacology
  • Acetone
  • Annona*
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Methanol
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Seeds


  • Acetogenins
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Acetone
  • Methanol

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