Relation of pandemics with solar cycles through ozone, cloud seeds, and vitamin D

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Sep 23;1-10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-22982-1. Online ahead of print.


The global records of infectious diseases, including Western and Eastern documents from 1825 to 2020, during which sunspot observations are considered reliable, show that 27 of the 34 pandemic outbreaks were coincident with sunspot number maxima or minima. There is evidence that the intensity of galactic cosmic rays is anti-correlated with solar activity and that cloud seed formation is accelerated by galactic cosmic rays. There are a substantial number of research papers showing the relationship between COVID-19 and vitamin D deficiency. The data analysis of ozone thickness measured based on NASA satellite observations revealed that ozone thickness has 11-year and 28-month cycles. Because the 11-year cycles of ozone thickness and cloud seed attenuation are anti-correlated, when either one becomes extremely thick, such as at the maximum or minimum point of solar activity, UV radiation is over-attenuated, and human vitamin D deficiency is globally increased. This finding explains the coincidence of pandemic outbreaks with the extrema of the sunspot numbers. Vitamin D supplementation can be an effective countermeasure against the spread of infectious diseases, which is a paramount importance to global society. Future pandemic forecasting should include the 11-year and 28-month cycles of UV radiation. This founding completes the relationship between solar activity and human health through the earth's environment.

Keywords: Cloud seed; Ozone; Pandemic; Solar activity; Vitamin D.