Structure and Function of Mycobacterial Arabinofuranosyltransferases

Subcell Biochem. 2022;99:379-391. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-00793-4_12.


The mycobacteria genus is responsible for numerous infectious diseases that have afflicted the human race since antiquity-tuberculosis and leprosy in particular. An important contributor to their evolutionary success is their unique cell envelope, which constitutes a quasi-impermeable barrier, protecting the microorganism from external threats, antibiotics included. The arabinofuranosyltransferases are a family of enzymes, unique to the Actinobacteria family that mycobacteria genus belongs to, that are critical to building of this cell envelope. In this chapter, we will analyze available structures of members of the mycobacterial arabinofuranosyltransferase, clarify their function, as well as explore the common themes present amongst this family of enzymes, as revealed by recent research.

Keywords: Acyl carrier protein; Arabinofuranosyltransferases; Arabinogalactan; Arabinosyltransferases; Cell wall biosynthesis; Cryo-EM; Cryogenic electron microscopy; Glycosyltransferases; Lipoarabinomannan; Mycobacterium; Sugar transfer; Tuberculosis; X-ray crystallography.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cell Wall
  • Humans
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis*
  • Mycobacterium*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents