Bespoke valve sizing avoids annular rupture in patients treated with a balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Nov;100(5):823-831. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30402. Epub 2022 Sep 24.


Background: Annular and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) calcification increase the risk of annular rupture following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The outcomes of a strategy of routine use of a balloon-expandable valve (BEV) for all patients irrespective of annular or LVOT calcium is unknown.

Objectives: We evaluated the impact of bespoke sizing on annular rupture in patients treated with a BEV.

Methods: All consecutive patients undergoing TAVR at a single centre (February 2020-February 2022) were treated only with a BEV. No other valve design was used. Annular/LVOT calcification was assessed using a standardized grading system. For each annular area, we determined the percentage valve oversizing with nominal deployment. The balloon deployment volume was then adjusted when required (over-/underfilled) to achieve over-sizing of approximately 5% in the presence of annular/LVOT calcium and 5%-10% in the absence of annular/LVOT calcium. Adjusted valve areas were assumed to change proportionately to the change in balloon deployment volume.

Results: Among 533 TAVR treated patients, annular/LVOT calcification was present in 166 (31.1%) and moderate or severe in 90 (16.9%). In patients with annular/LVOT calcification, the adjusted oversizing was 3.5 ± 3.6% and in patients without annular/LVOT calcification, the adjusted oversizing was 6.8 ± 4.7% (p < 0.001). There were no cases of annular rupture and no cases with more than mild paravalvular leak (PVL). Mild PVL was more frequent in patients with annular/LVOT calcium (10.8% vs 4.6%, p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Bespoke BEV sizing by adjustment of balloon deployment volume avoided annular rupture in patients undergoing TAVR.

Keywords: LVOT calcification; TAVR; annular rupture; paravalvular leak.

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency*
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Calcinosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Calcinosis* / etiology
  • Calcinosis* / surgery
  • Calcium
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Calcium