Current and future pharmacotherapy options for drug-resistant epilepsy

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2022 Dec;23(18):2023-2034. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2022.2128670. Epub 2022 Sep 27.


Introduction: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition, affecting over 70 million individuals worldwide.

Areas covered: The present paper reviews current and future (under preclinical and clinical development) pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of drug-resistant focal and generalized epilepsies.

Expert opinion: Current pharmacotherapy options for drug-resistant epilepsy include perampanel, brivaracetam and the newly approved cenobamate for focal epilepsies; cannabidiol (Epidiolex) for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS), Dravet and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC); fenfluramine for Dravet syndrome and ganaxolone for seizures in Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder. Many compounds are under clinical development and may hold promise for future pharmacotherapies. For adult focal epilepsies, padsevonil and carisbamate are at a more advanced Phase III stage of clinical development followed by compounds at Phase II like selurampanel, XEN1101 and JNJ-40411813. For specific epilepsy syndromes, XEN 496 is under Phase III development for potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 2 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (KCNQ2-DEE), carisbamate is under Phase III development for LGS and Ganaxolone under Phase III development for TSC. Finally, in preclinical models several molecular targets including inhibition of glycolysis, neuroinflammation and sodium channel inhibition have been identified in animal models although further data in animal and later human studies are needed.

Keywords: Epilepsy; antiepileptic drugs; carisbamate; cenobamate; fenfluramine; ganaxolone; padsevonil.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Anticonvulsants / pharmacology
  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Cannabidiol* / therapeutic use
  • Epilepsies, Partial* / drug therapy
  • Epilepsy* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Lennox Gastaut Syndrome* / drug therapy
  • Spasms, Infantile* / drug therapy
  • Tuberous Sclerosis* / drug therapy


  • S-2-O-carbamoyl-1-o-chlorophenyl-ethanol
  • Anticonvulsants
  • trans-sodium crocetinate
  • Cannabidiol

Supplementary concepts

  • CDKL5 deficiency disorder