An overview of mammalian and microbial hormone-sensitive lipases (lipolytic family IV): biochemical properties and industrial applications

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2022 Sep 25:1-30. doi: 10.1080/02648725.2022.2127071. Online ahead of print.


In mammals, hormone-sensitive lipase (EC is an intracellular lipase that significantly regulates lipid metabolism. Mammalian HSL is more active towards diacylglycerol but lacks a lid covering the active site. Dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, cancer, and cancer-associated cachexia are symptoms of HSL pathophysiology. Certain microbial proteins show a sequence homologous to the catalytic domain of mammalian HSL, hence called microbial HSL. They possess a funnel-shaped substrate-binding pocket and restricted length of acyl chain esters, thus known as esterases. These enzymes have broad substrate specificities and are capable of stereo, regio, and enantioselective, making them attractive biocatalysts in a wide range of industrial applications in the production of flavors, pharmaceuticals, biosensors, and fine chemicals. This review will provide insight into mammalian and microbial HSLs, their sources, structural features related to substrate specificity, thermal stability, and their applications.

Keywords: Hormone-Sensitive lipase (HSL); industrial applications; substrate specificity; thermal stability.

Publication types

  • Review