Twenty patients with massive or recurrent hemoptysis underwent percutaneous transcatheter embolotherapy between 1979 and 1986 for the following diseases: cavitary aspergillosis (n = 4); cystic fibrosis (n = 4); tuberculosis (n = 3); bronchogenic carcinoma (n = 3); bronchiectasis (n = 3); small cell lung carcinoma 6 years after irradiation (n = 1); congenital heart disease, after Glenn and Blalock anastomoses (n = 1); and unknown interstitial disease (n = 1). Bronchial arteries were embolized in all but one patient. In nine patients (45%) nonbronchial systemic collateral arteries contributed significantly to areas of pathologic pulmonary tissue and frequently were the major arterial supply. These nonbronchial systemic collaterals included branches of the subclavian and axillary arteries (n = 7), intercostal arteries (n = 5), and phrenic arteries (n = 3) and accounted for 59.5% of the total number of arteries embolized. Recognition and occlusion of nonbronchial systemic collaterals providing blood to hypervascular pulmonary lesions is essential for successful percutaneous embolotherapy of hemoptysis.