Oral inhalation of cannabidiol delivered from a metered dose inhaler to alleviate cytokine production induced by SARS-CoV-2 and pollutants

J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2022 Oct;76:103805. doi: 10.1016/j.jddst.2022.103805. Epub 2022 Sep 17.

Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD) was formulated as a metered dose inhaler (CBD-MDI) and evaluated in vitro for its efficacy as an inhaled dosage form against inflammation caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, silica particles, nicotine, and coal tar. A CBD-MDI formulation was prepared with 50 mg of CBD in 10 mL for a CBD dose of 250 μg/puff. The formulation ingredients included CBD, absolute ethanol as a cosolvent, and HFA-134a as the propellant. High aerosol performance of CBD-MDI was obtained with mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.25 ± 0.01 μm, geometric standard deviation of 1.75 ± 0.00, emitted dose of 244.7 ± 2.1 μg, and fine particle dose of 122.0 ± 1.6 μg. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effectiveness of CBD-MDI were performed in alveolar macrophage (NR8383) and co-culture of alveolar macrophage (NR8383) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. CBD delivered from an MDI was safe on respiratory cells and did not trigger an immune response in alveolar macrophages. CBD-MDI effectively reduced the generation of cytokines in immune cells treated with viral antigen S-RBD, bacterial antigen LPS, silica particles, and coal tar. The efficacy of CBD-MDI was comparable to budesonide. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that the use of CBD-MDI was more effective in treatment rather than prevention when inflammation was induced by either a viral or bacterial stimulant.

Keywords: Aerosol; Anti-inflammation; Cannabidiol; Metered dose inhaler; Pollutants; SAR-CoV2.