ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2022: Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

Pediatr Diabetes. 2022 Nov;23(7):872-902. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13409. Epub 2022 Sep 25.


Since the 2018 ISPAD guidelines on this topic, follow-up of large cohorts from around the globe have continued informing the current incidence and prevalence of co-morbidities and complications in young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). This chapter focuses on the risk factors, diagnosis and presentation of youth-onset T2D, the initial and subsequent management of youth-onset T2D, and management of co-morbidities and complications. We include key updates from the observational phase of the multi-center Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study and new data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study, a head-to-head comparison of youth onset vs adult-onset T2D. We also include an expanded section on risk factors associated with T2D, algorithms and tables for treatment, management, and assessment of co-morbidities and complications, and sections on recently approved pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of youth-onset T2D, social determinants of health, and settings of care given COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: obesity; pediatrics; type 2 diabetes; youth.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • COVID-19*
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Pandemics
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult