Bleeding, Hemorrhagic Shock, and the Global Blood Supply

Crit Care Clin. 2022 Oct;38(4):775-793. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2022.06.013.


Hemorrhage is responsible for at least 40% of deaths after trauma and 27% of maternal deaths worldwide. Patients with hemorrhagic shock require attentive critical care and transfusion of blood products. Access to a safe and affordable blood supply is critical to providing safe surgical care. Traumatic injury, obstetric hemorrhage, and upper gastrointestinal bleed are the main causes of severe bleeding requiring transfusion. This article discusses the presentation and management of these causes across the world and provides a brief overview of the current challenges in maintaining a global blood supply.

Keywords: Blood transfusion; Critical care; Global health; Hemorrhage; Hemorrhagic shock.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Transfusion
  • Female
  • Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic* / diagnosis
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic* / therapy