Immunity with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the acute phase is not sufficiently well understood to differentiate mild from severe cases and identify prognostic markers. We evaluated the immune response profile using a total of 71 biomarkers in sera from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by RT-PCR and controls. We correlated biological marker levels with negative control (C) asymptomatic (A), nonhospitalized (mild cases-M), and hospitalized (severe cases-S) groups. Among angiogenesis markers, we identified biomarkers that were more frequently elevated in severe cases when compared to the other groups (C, A, and M). Among cardiovascular diseases, there were biomarkers with differences between the groups, with D-dimer, GDF-15, and sICAM-1 higher in the S group. The levels of the biomarkers Myoglobin and P-Selectin were lower among patients in group M compared to those in groups S and A. Important differences in cytokines and chemokines according to the clinical course were identified. Severe cases presented altered levels when compared to group C. This study helps to characterize biological markers related to angiogenesis, growth factors, heart disease, and cytokine/chemokine production in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2, offering prognostic signatures and a basis for understanding the biological factors in disease severity.
© 2022. The Author(s).