Giant Cell Arteritis: Focusing on Current Aspects From the Clinic to Diagnosis and Treatment

Angiology. 2023 Sep;74(8):709-716. doi: 10.1177/00033197221130564. Epub 2022 Sep 26.


Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous arteritis involving large arteries, particularly the aorta and its major proximal branches, including the carotid and temporal arteries. GCA involves individuals over 50 years old. The etiopathogenesis of GCA may involve a genetic background triggered by unknown environmental factors (eg infections), the activation of dendritic cells as well as inflammatory and vascular remodeling. However, its pathogenetic mechanism still remains unclear, although progress has been made in recent years. In the past, inflammatory markers and arterial biopsy were considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of GCA. However, emerging imaging methods have been made more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of GCA. Treatment includes biological and other modalities including interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors.

Keywords: cranial cell arteritis; giant cell arteritis; polymyalgia rheumatica; temporal arteritis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aorta
  • Giant Cell Arteritis* / diagnosis
  • Giant Cell Arteritis* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Temporal Arteries / pathology