Background: Maintaining cerebral blood flow is important in intraoperative management of moyamoya disease patients.
Aims: To access changes in the carotid artery blood flow velocity in response to fluid challenge, blood pressure, and cardiac output under general anesthesia in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease.
Methods: This observational study included pediatric patients with moyamoya disease undergoing general anesthesia for encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Each patient underwent an ultrasound assessment thrice as follows: after anesthetic induction (T1), after fluid challenge (10 ml/kg, T2), and at the end of surgery (T3). The primary outcome was the change in the internal carotid artery blood flow velocity after fluid challenge and was assessed using a paired t-test. The secondary outcomes comprised changes in the internal, external, and common carotid artery blood flow peak velocities after fluid challenge and the factors influencing these changes.
Results: We enrolled and analyzed 30 patients with a mean age of 7.2 years. After fluid challenge, the systolic (p = .003) and mean blood pressure (p = .017), stroke volume index (p = .008), and cardiac index (p = .140) were higher than those at T1. However, both internal carotid artery blood flow velocities did not change after fluid challenge (p = .798, mean difference and 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1 and -10.3 to 8.0 for right, p = .164, mean difference and 95% CI, -5.2 and -12.7 to 2.2 for left). The internal carotid artery blood flow velocity was correlated with the cardiac index, stroke volume index, and mean and diastolic blood pressure, with low significance.
Conclusions: The internal carotid artery blood flow velocity did not increase in pediatric patients with moyamoya disease under general anesthesia, despite fluid challenge and corresponding changes in the blood pressure and cardiac output. Intraoperative hemodynamic management to improve the cerebral blood flow in these patients requires further investigation.
Keywords: fluid challenge; internal carotid artery; moyamoya disease; pediatric patients; prospective study.
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.