Application of a custom haplotype caller to analyze sequence-based data of 56 microhaplotypes

Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2022 Nov:61:102778. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2022.102778. Epub 2022 Sep 18.


Microhaplotypes (microhaps) are recently introduced markers that aim to complement the limitations of conventional forensic markers such as short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). With the potential of microhaps in forensics becoming clearer through massively parallel sequencing (MPS), MPS-based studies on microhaps are being actively reported. However, simpler workflow schemes for the generation and analysis of MPS data are still required to facilitate the practical application of MPS in forensics. In this study, we developed an in-house MPS panel that simultaneously amplifies 56 microhaps and a custom haplotype caller, Visual Microhap. The developed tool works on a web browser and provides four analysis options to extract SNP-based haplotypes from sequence-based data obtained by STRait Razor 3.0. To demonstrate the utility of the MPS panel and data analysis workflow scheme, we also analyzed 56 microhaps of 286 samples from four populations (African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic, and Korean). The average effective number of alleles (Ae) for the four groups was 3.45, ranging from 1.74 to 6.98. Forensic statistical parameters showed that this microhap panel is more powerful than conventional autosomal STRs for human identification. Meanwhile, the 56-plex panel mostly comprised microhaps with high Ae; however, the four populations were grossly distinguishable from each other by cluster analysis. Consequently, the developed in-house MPS panel for 56 microhaps and the adopted workflow using open-source tools can increase the utility of microhap MPS in forensic research and practice.

Keywords: Human identification; Massively parallel sequencing; Microhaplotype; STRUCTURE analysis; Visual Microhap.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA Fingerprinting*
  • Haplotypes
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing*
  • Humans
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA