Allogeneic stem cell transplantation compared to conservative management in adults with inborn errors of immunity

Blood. 2023 Jan 5;141(1):60-71. doi: 10.1182/blood.2022015482.


Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is curative for severe inborn errors of immunity (IEIs), with recent data suggesting alloSCT in adulthood is safe and effective in selected patients. However, questions remain regarding the indications for and optimal timing of transplant. We retrospectively compared outcomes of transplanted vs matched nontransplanted adults with severe IEIs. Seventy-nine patients (aged ≥ 15 years) underwent alloSCT between 2008 and 2018 for IEIs such as chronic granulomatous disease (n = 20) and various combined immune deficiencies (n = 59). A cohort of nontransplanted patients from the French Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires registry was identified blindly for case-control analysis, with ≤3 matched controls per index patient, without replacement. The nontransplanted patients were matched for birth decade, age at last review greater than index patient age at alloSCT, chronic granulomatous disease or combined immune deficiencies, and autoimmune/lymphoproliferative complications. A total of 281 patients were included (79 transplanted, 202 nontransplanted). Median age at transplant was 21 years. Transplant indications were mainly lymphoproliferative disease (n = 23) or colitis (n = 15). Median follow-up was 4.8 years (interquartile range, 2.5-7.2). One-year transplant-related mortality rate was 13%. Estimated disease-free survival at 5 years was higher in transplanted patients (58% vs 33%; P = .007). Nontransplanted patients had an ongoing risk of severe events, with an increased mean cumulative number of recurrent events compared with transplanted patients. Sensitivity analyses removing patients with common variable immune deficiency and their matched transplanted patients confirm these results. AlloSCT prevents progressive morbidity associated with IEIs in adults, which may outweigh the negative impact of transplant-related mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Conservative Treatment
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / etiology
  • Granulomatous Disease, Chronic* / therapy
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • Transplantation, Homologous / methods
  • Young Adult