Polyclonal evolution of Fanconi anemia to MDS and AML revealed at single cell resolution

Exp Hematol Oncol. 2022 Sep 27;11(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s40164-022-00319-5.


Background: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease of bone marrow failure. FA patients are prone to develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the molecular clonal evolution of the progression from FA to MDS/AML remains elusive.

Methods: Herein, we performed a comprehensive genomic analysis using an FA patient (P1001) sample that transformed to MDS and subsequently AML, together with other three FA patient samples at the MDS stage.

Results: Our finding showed the existence of polyclonal pattern in these cases at MDS stage. The clonal evolution analysis of FA case (P1001) showed the mutations of UBASH3A, SF3B1, RUNX1 and ASXL1 gradually appeared at the later stage of MDS, while the IDH2 alteration become the dominant clone at the leukemia stage. Moreover, single-cell sequencing analyses further demonstrated a polyclonal pattern was present at either MDS or AML stages, whereas IDH2 mutated cell clones appeared only at the leukemia stage.

Conclusions: We thus propose a clonal evolution model from FA to MDS and AML for this patient. The results of our study on the clonal evolution and mutated genes of the progression of FA to AML are conducive to understanding the progression of the disease that still perplexes us.

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Clonal evolution; Fanconi anemia; Myelodysplastic syndromes.