The connections between metabolic state and therapy resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) are poorly understood. We previously reported that electron transport chain (ETC) suppression promotes sensitivity to the BCL-2 antagonist venetoclax. Here, we show that ETC suppression promotes resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PIs). Interrogation of ETC-suppressed MM reveals integrated stress response-dependent suppression of protein translation and ubiquitination, leading to PI resistance. ETC and protein translation gene expression signatures from the CoMMpass trial are down-regulated in patients with poor outcome and relapse, corroborating our in vitro findings. ETC-suppressed MM exhibits up-regulation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter SLC7A11, and analysis of patient single-cell RNA-seq shows that clusters with low ETC gene expression correlate with higher SLC7A11 expression. Furthermore, erastin or venetoclax treatment diminishes mitochondrial stress-induced PI resistance. In sum, our work demonstrates that mitochondrial stress promotes PI resistance and underscores the need for implementing combinatorial regimens in MM cognizant of mitochondrial metabolic state.