Examination of risk exposure models during COVID-19 in relation to youth life satisfaction and internalizing symptoms

Sci Rep. 2022 Sep 28;12(1):16252. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-20661-2.


This study examined mediation of a negative COVID-impact on the relationship between risk exposure, and life satisfaction and internalizing symptoms in youth (aged 9-18). Four operationalizations of risk exposure were applied; an Additive versus a Cumulative Risk Model (ARM and CRM), risk clusters and the most salient risk factors. Results showed that a stronger negative COVID-impact is related to lower life satisfaction, more internalizing symptoms and higher additive and cumulative risk. ARM and CRM's effect on lower life satisfaction is mediated through negative COVID-impact, though not for internalizing symptoms. Clusters of risk factors and risk factors within clusters significantly related to a stronger negative COVID-impact are the clusters 'Individual factors' (low self-control), 'Parenting' (negative mother-child interaction and low parental responsiveness), 'Maternal mental health' and 'Demographic factors' (low SES and high paternal education). From all significant risk factors, low self-control, low parental responsiveness, negative mother-child interaction and low SES were most salient.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mother-Child Relations
  • Parenting
  • Parents
  • Personal Satisfaction