Cholera Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2022

MMWR Recomm Rep. 2022 Sep 30;71(2):1-8. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr7102a1.


THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES ALL RECOMMENDATIONS FROM CDC'S ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON IMMUNIZATION PRACTICES (ACIP) FOR THE USE OF LYOPHILIZED CVD 103-HGR VACCINE (CVD 103-HGR) (VAXCHORA, EMERGENT BIOSOLUTIONS, GAITHERSBURG, MD) IN THE UNITED STATES. THE LIVE ATTENUATED ORAL CHOLERA VACCINE IS DERIVED FROM: Vibrio cholerae O1 and is administered in a single dose. Cholera is a toxin-mediated bacterial gastrointestinal illness caused by toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1 or, uncommonly, O139. Up to 10% of infections manifest as severe cholera (i.e., cholera gravis), profuse watery diarrhea that can cause severe dehydration and death within hours. Fluid replacement therapy can reduce the fatality rate to <1%. Risk factors for cholera gravis include high dose exposure, blood group O, increased gastric pH (e.g., from antacid therapy), and partial gastrectomy. Cholera is rare in the United States, but cases occur among travelers to countries where cholera is endemic or epidemic and associated with unsafe water and inadequate sanitation. Travelers might be at increased risk for poor outcomes from cholera if they cannot readily access medical services or if they have a medical condition that would be worsened by dehydration, such as cardiovascular or kidney disease. This report describes previously published ACIP recommendations about use of CVD 103-HgR for adults aged 18-64 years and introduces a new recommendation for use in children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. ACIP recommends CVD 103-HgR, the only cholera vaccine licensed for use in the United States, for prevention of cholera among travelers aged 2-64 years to an area with active cholera transmission. Health care providers can use these guidelines to develop the pretravel consultation for persons traveling to areas with active cholera transmission.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Advisory Committees
  • Antacids
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cholera Vaccines* / administration & dosage
  • Cholera* / epidemiology
  • Cholera* / prevention & control
  • Dehydration
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vibrio cholerae O1
  • Water
  • Young Adult


  • Antacids
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Cholera Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Water