Ultrasonografically assessed osteosarcopenic obesity is associated with frailty in community-dwelling older adults

Nutrition. 2022 Nov-Dec:103-104:111827. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2022.111827. Epub 2022 Aug 19.


Objectives: Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO; also known as adiposity) is the combination of three critical conditions. This study aimed to define OSO using muscle ultrasonography (US), and examine the relationship between OSO and frailty compared with its constituent components.

Methods: A total of160 geriatric patients with a body mass index of ≥30 were enrolled in the study. We obtained US measurements of the rectus femoris thickness and cross-sectional area (RFCSA). OSO was defined as the combination of low muscle function (defined by handgrip strength <27 kg in men and <16 kg in women), low muscle mass (RFCSA ≤5.22 cm2), and the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The modified Fried Frailty Index and Clinical Frailty Scale were used to identify frailty.

Results: The median age of participants was 72 y, and 83% (n = 137) were female. Patients were divided into four categories: Obese (n = 72; 43.6%), osteoporotic obese (n = 44; 26.7%), sarcopenic obese (n = 19; 11.5%), and osteosarcopenic obese (n = 25; 15.2%). In the subgroup analysis, the prevalence of frailty was significantly higher in the OSO group than in the other groups on both frailty scales (P < 0.05). The regression analysis showed that OSO significantly increased frailty status when adjusted for confounders detailed in Table 1 (Fried Frailty Index: odds ratio: 5.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.669-15.132; P = 0.004; Clinical Frailty Scale: odds ratio: 3.765; 95% confidence interval, 1.236-11.465; P = 0.020).

Conclusions: US-defined OSO is strongly associated with frailty in older adults according to the first study to define OSO using RFCSA measures.

Keywords: Geriatrics; Osteoporosis; Osteosarcopenic adiposity frailty; Osteosarcopenic obesity; Sarcopenic obesity.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Frailty* / complications
  • Frailty* / diagnostic imaging
  • Frailty* / epidemiology
  • Hand Strength / physiology
  • Humans
  • Independent Living
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / diagnostic imaging
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Sarcopenia* / complications
  • Sarcopenia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Sarcopenia* / epidemiology