Aim: To explore the phenotypic spectrum and refine the genotype-phenotype correlation of DYNC1H1-related epilepsy.
Method: The clinical data of 15 patients with epilepsy in our cohort and 50 patients with epilepsy from 24 published studies with the DYNC1H1 variants were evaluated.
Results: In our cohort, 13 variants were identified from 15 patients (seven males, eight females). Twelve variants were de novo and seven were new. Age at seizure onset ranged from 3 months to 4 years 5 months (median age 1 year). Common seizure types were epileptic spasms, focal seizures, tonic seizures, and myoclonic seizures. Mild-to-severe developmental delay was present in all patients. Six patients were diagnosed with West syndrome and one was diagnosed with epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS). Collectively, in our cohort and published studies, 17% had ophthalmic diseases, 31% of variants were located in the stalk domain, and 92% patients with epilepsy had a malformation of cortical development (MCD).
Interpretation: The phenotypes of DYNC1H1-related epilepsy included multiple seizure types; the most common epileptic syndrome was West syndrome. CSWS is a new phenotype of DYNC1H1-related epilepsy. One-third of the variants in patients with epilepsy were located in the stalk domain. Most patients had a MCD and developmental delay.
What this paper adds: Nearly 40% of patients with DYNC1H1 variants had epilepsy. Ninety-two percent of patients with DYNC1H1-related epilepsy had malformation of cortical development. More than 10% of patients with DYNC1H1-related epilepsy were diagnosed with West syndrome. Continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep could be a new phenotype of DYNC1H1 variants. One-third of the variants in patients with epilepsy were located in the stalk domain.
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