Predictors of survival for pediatric extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30860. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030860.


Background: The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has improved survival in patients with cardiac arrest; however, factors predicting survival remain poorly characterized. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of survival of ECPR in pediatric patients.

Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Library from 2010 to 2021 for pediatric ECPR studies comparing survivors and non-survivors. Thirty outcomes were analyzed and classified into 5 categories: demographics, pre-ECPR laboratory measurements, pre-ECPR co-morbidities, intra-ECPR characteristics, and post-ECPR complications.

Results: Thirty studies (n = 3794) were included. Pooled survival to hospital discharge (SHD) was 44% (95% CI: 40%-47%, I2 = 67%). Significant predictors of survival for pediatric ECPR include the pre-ECPR lab measurements of PaO2, pH, lactate, PaCO2, and creatinine, pre-ECPR comorbidities of single ventricle (SV) physiology, renal failure, sepsis, ECPR characteristics of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) duration, ECMO flow rate at 24 hours, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration, shockable rhythm, intra-ECPR neurological complications, and post-ECPR complications of pulmonary hemorrhage, renal failure, and sepsis.

Conclusion: Prior to ECPR initiation, increased CPR duration and lactate levels had among the highest associations with mortality, followed by pH. After ECPR initiation, pulmonary hemorrhage and neurological complications were most predictive for survival. Clinicians should focus on these factors to better inform potential prognosis of patients, advise appropriate patient selection, and improve ECPR program effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation*
  • Child
  • Creatinine
  • Humans
  • Lactic Acid
  • Nervous System Diseases*
  • Oxygen
  • Renal Insufficiency*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sepsis*
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Lactic Acid
  • Creatinine
  • Oxygen