Aims: The aim of this study was to synthesize the evidence on the effect of the current therapies over the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Methods and results: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 41 studies identified from 1383 retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane was conducted. Therapies were grouped in pharmacological, invasive and physical exercise. Pharmacological agents had no effect on functional capacity measured by VO2max (1.11 mL/kg/min; 95% CI: -0.04, 2.25, P < 0.05). Invasive septal reduction therapies increased VO2max (+3.2 mL/kg/min; 95% CI: 1.78, 4.60, P < 0.05). Structured physical exercise programmes did not report contraindications and evidenced the highest increases on functional capacity (VO2max + 4.33 mL/kg/min; 95% CI: 0.20, 8.45, P < 0.05). Patients with left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction at rest improved their VO2max to a greater extent compared with those without resting LVOT obstruction (2.82 mL/kg/min; 95% CI: 1.97, 3.67 vs. 1.18; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.74, P < 0.05). Peak LVOT gradient was reduced with the three treatment options with the highest reduction observed for invasive therapies. Left ventricular ejection fraction was reduced in pharmacological and invasive procedures. No effect was observed after physical exercise. Symptomatic status improved with the three options and to a greater extent with invasive procedures.
Conclusions: Invasive septal reduction therapies increase VO2max, improve symptomatic status, and reduce resting and peak LVOT gradient, thus might be considered in obstructive patients. Physical exercise emerges as a coadjuvant therapy, which is safe and associated with benefits on functional capacity. Pharmacological agents improve reported NYHA class, but not functional capacity.
Keywords: Cardiopulmonary exercise test; Functional capacity; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; Therapies.
© 2022 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.