Genetic alterations of TP53 and OTX2 indicate increased risk of relapse in WNT medulloblastomas

Acta Neuropathol. 2022 Dec;144(6):1143-1156. doi: 10.1007/s00401-022-02505-5. Epub 2022 Oct 1.


This study aimed to re-evaluate the prognostic impact of TP53 mutations and to identify specific chromosomal aberrations as possible prognostic markers in WNT-activated medulloblastoma (WNT-MB). In a cohort of 191 patients with WNT-MBs, mutations in CTNNB1, APC, and TP53 were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Chromosomal copy-number aberrations were assessed by molecular inversion probe technology (MIP), SNP6, or 850k methylation array hybridization. Prognostic impact was evaluated in 120 patients with follow-up data from the HIT2000 medulloblastoma trial or HIT registries. CTNNB1 mutations were present in 92.2%, and APC mutations in 6.8% of samples. One CTNNB1 wild-type tumor gained WNT activation due to homozygous FBXW7 deletion. Monosomy 6 was present in 78.6%, and more frequent in children than adults. 16.1% of tumor samples showed TP53 mutations, of those 60% with nuclear positivity for the p53 protein. Loss of heterozygosity at the TP53 locus (chromosome 17p13.1) was found in 40.7% (11/27) of TP53 mutant tumor samples and in 12.6% of TP53 wild-type cases (13/103). Patients with tumors harboring TP53 mutations showed significant worse progression-free survival (PFS; 5-year-PFS 68% versus 93%, p = 0.001), and were enriched for chromosomes 17p (p = 0.001), 10, and 13 losses. Gains of OTX2 (14q22.3) occurred in 38.9% of samples and were associated with poor PFS and OS (5-year-PFS 72% versus 93%, p = 0.017 resp. 5-year-OS 83% versus 97%, p = 0.006). Multivariable Cox regression analysis for PFS/OS identified both genetic alterations as independent prognostic markers. Our data suggest that patients with WNT-MB carrying TP53 mutations or OTX2 gains (58.1%) are at higher risk of relapse. Eligibility of these patients for therapy de-escalation trials needs to be debated.

Keywords: Medulloblastoma; OTX2; Prognosis; WNT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cerebellar Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Child
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Humans
  • Medulloblastoma* / pathology
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Otx Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


  • Otx Transcription Factors
  • OTX2 protein, human
  • TP53 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53