Since the very beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020, it was evident that patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) were at an increased risk of developing severe illness, and complications spanning cerebrovascular disorders, dysrhythmias, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, heart failure, thromboembolic disease, stroke, and death. Underlying these was excessive systemic inflammation and coagulopathy due to SARS-COV-2 infection, the effects of which also continued long-term as evidenced by post-COVID-19 cardiovascular complications. The acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 occurred even among those who were not hospitalized and had no previous CVD or those with mild symptoms. This comprehensive review summarizes the current understanding of molecular mechanisms triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus on various cells that express the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, leading to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, myocarditis, impaired coagulation, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children or Kawasaki-like disease.
Keywords: COVID-19; Endothelial dysfunction; Inflammation; Myocardial injury; Oxidative stress; Thrombosis.
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