In vitro effectiveness of pomegranate extract present in pet oral hygiene products against canine oral bacterial species

Vet World. 2022 Jul;15(7):1714-1718. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2022.1714-1718. Epub 2022 Jul 20.


Background and aim: Pomegranate is known to possess antibacterial properties, partly because of its punicalagin content. However, its effect on canine oral bacterial species has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pomegranate extract present in pet dental products on the growth and survival of five canine oral bacterial species in biofilms.

Materials and methods: Five bacterial species, Neisseria shayeganii, Neisseria canis, Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, and Porphyromonas crevioricanis, were individually cultured for biofilm formation and exposed to pomegranate extract (or control) for 15 min. Cell survival was analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and was compared between different conditions using a student's t-test. In addition, the individual strains were grown in planktonic suspensions and exposed to serial dilutions of the extract to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration.

Results: At a concentration of 0.035% w/v, the extract significantly reduced the survival of P. gulae (-39%, p < 0.001) and N. canis (-28%, p = 0.08) in biofilms. At similar concentrations, the extract also completely or partially inhibited the growth of N. canis and Porphyromonas spp. in planktonic suspensions, respectively.

Conclusion: The pomegranate extract found in some pet dental products can limit bacterial growth and survival in the biofilms formed by N. canis and P. gulae in vitro. As P. gulae is involved in periodontal disease progression, limiting its proliferation using products containing pomegranate extract could contribute to disease prevention. Further studies on dogs receiving such products are necessary to confirm these effects.

Keywords: Neisseria canis; Porphyromonas gulae; dental biofilm; dogs; oral hygiene; pomegranate.