End-to-end anastomosis as a superior repair type to prevent recurrence of arteriovenous fistula aneurysms and improve patency outcomes

J Vasc Access. 2024 Mar;25(2):531-537. doi: 10.1177/11297298221125609. Epub 2022 Oct 2.


Background: Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) complicated by aneurysms are repaired through several mechanisms. Little is known about risk factors for aneurysm recurrence or the efficacy of subsequent repair of recurring aneurysms.

Methods: About 291 patients underwent AVF aneurysm repair between 2009 and 2019 at a large urban medical center. Patients who underwent staged repair, had a primary graft with pseudoaneurysm, were status-post kidney transplant, or using other dialysis access at the time of repair were excluded. One hundred sixty-two patients were included in the study, of which 52 developed a secondary aneurysm. Chi-square and t-test analyses were used to compare demographics. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine independent risk factors for aneurysm recurrence. Of the 52 patients with recurrent aneurysms, 41 were repaired again. Patency was examined for each group 1 year postoperatively.

Results: Patients without secondary aneurysms were more likely to have a Charlson Comorbidity Index score ⩾5 (p = 0.045). Males were 2.8 times more likely to develop a secondary aneurysm compared to females (p = 0.023). Patients who underwent elective compared to emergent or urgent surgery for primary aneurysms were significantly less likely to recur (OR = 0.222; p = 0.016). Primary aneurysms repaired by end-to-end anastomosis, compared to aneurysmorrhaphy or graft, were significantly less likely to recur (OR = 0.239; p = 0.041). Among patients with secondary aneurysms, those repaired via end-to-end anastomosis had a significantly higher primary patency rate 1 year postoperatively (p = 0.024). Secondary aneurysm repairs exhibited 1-year primary and secondary patency rates of 51.2% and 82.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: End-to-end anastomosis reduces risk of recurrence and demonstrates superior patency rates when repairing recurrent aneurysms. It remains unclear why some patients are prone to aneurysm recurrence, however continued attempts to repair existing vascular access are proven to be successful.

Keywords: AV fistula; dialysis; interventional radiology; prosthetic grafts; techniques and procedures.

MeSH terms

  • Anastomosis, Surgical / adverse effects
  • Aneurysm* / etiology
  • Arteriovenous Fistula* / etiology
  • Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Upper Extremity / blood supply
  • Vascular Patency