A Phase I/II Trial of Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Children and Young Adults with Relapsed/Refractory Solid Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Study ADVL1412

Clin Cancer Res. 2022 Dec 1;28(23):5088-5097. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-22-2164.


Purpose: In many cancers, nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab improves response rates compared with either agent alone, but the combination has not been evaluated in childhood cancer. We conducted a phase I/II trial of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in children and young adults with recurrent/refractory solid tumors.

Patients and methods: ADVL1412, Part C assessed safety of nivolumab plus ipilimumab at two dose levels (DL): DL1 1 mg/kg of each drug and DL2 3 mg/kg nivolumab plus 1 mg/kg ipilimumab. Part D evaluated response at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) in Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Part E tested DL3 (1 mg/kg nivolumab plus 3 mg/kg ipilimumab) in Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Tumor response was measured using RECIST v1.1. Pharmacokinetics and PD-L1 expression on archival tissues were assessed.

Results: Fifty-five eligible patients enrolled. Based on safety, tolerability, and similar drug exposure to the same doses administered in adults, DL2 was defined as the pediatric RP2D. Among 41 patients treated at the RP2D, 2 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities during cycle 1, and 4 patients experienced toxicities beyond that period. Two patients had clinically significant sustained partial responses (1 rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 Ewing sarcoma) and 4 had stable disease. Among 8 patients treated at DL3, 3 dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred, all immune-related adverse events; no objective responses were observed.

Conclusions: The RP2D of nivolumab (3 mg/kg) plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg) is well tolerated in children and young adults with solid tumors and shows some clinical activity. Increased dose of ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) plus nivolumab (1 mg/kg) was associated with increased toxicity without clinical benefit.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Ipilimumab
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • Nivolumab
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma* / drug therapy
  • Sarcoma, Ewing* / drug therapy
  • Young Adult


  • Ipilimumab
  • Nivolumab