The role of macrophage subtypes and exosomes in immunomodulation

Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2022 Oct 3;27(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s11658-022-00384-y.


Macrophages are influential members of the innate immune system that can be reversibly polarized by different microenvironment signals. Cell polarization leads to a wide range of features, involving the migration, development, and organization of the cells. There is mounting evidence that macrophage polarization plays a key role in the initiation and development of a wide range of diseases. This study aims to give an overview of macrophage polarization, their different subtypes, and the importance of alternatively activated M2 macrophage and classically activated M1 macrophage in immune responses and pathological conditions. This review provides insight on the role of exosomes in M1/M2-like macrophage polarization and their potential as a promising therapeutic candidate.

Keywords: Exosomes; Inflammation; Macrophage polarization; Macrophages.

Publication types

  • Letter
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Exosomes*
  • Immunity
  • Immunomodulation
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Macrophages