The importance of vitamin D and omega-3 PUFA supplementation: a nonpharmacologic immunomodulation strategy to halt autoimmunity

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2022 Sep;26(18):6787-6795. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202209_29780.


The large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial VITAL (Vitamin D and omega 3 trial) recently confirmed that vitamin D and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) co-supplementation (VIDOM) can reduce the incidence of autoimmune diseases. Based on these relevant results, this commentary summarizes the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of vitamin D and omega-3 PUFAs. We also describe the potential bidirectional interplay between vitamin D metabolism and omega-3 PUFA metabolism that underlies the rationale for VIDOM co-supplementation and that may contribute to enhance the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D and omega-3 PUFAs when these compounds are administered in combination.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Autoimmune Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Autoimmunity
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D