Historical and Contemporary Control Options Against Bed Bugs, Cimex spp

Annu Rev Entomol. 2023 Jan 23:68:169-190. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-015010. Epub 2022 Oct 5.


Bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are an important group of obligate hematophagous urban insect pests. The global resurgence of bed bugs, involving the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), over the past two decades is believed to be primarily due to the development of insecticide resistance, along with global travel and poor pest management, which have contributed to their spread. This review examines and synthesizes the literature on bed bug origins and their global spread and the literature on historical and contemporary control options. This includes bed bug prevention, detection and monitoring, nonchemical and chemical control methodologies (and their limitations), and potential future control options. Future research needs are highlighted, especially the factors behind the modern resurgence, the necessity of identifying differences between the two bed bug species relevant to control, and the need to improve insecticide test protocols and management strategies.

Keywords: Cimex hemipterus; Cimex lectularius; chemical control; global resurgence; management; nonchemical control.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bedbugs*
  • Insect Control
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Insecticides*


  • Insecticides