Optimal selection of COVID-19 vaccination sites in the Philippines at the municipal level

PeerJ. 2022 Sep 30:10:e14151. doi: 10.7717/peerj.14151. eCollection 2022.


In this work, we present an approach to determine the optimal location of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination sites at the municipal level. We assume that each municipality is subdivided into smaller administrative units, which we refer to as barangays. The proposed method solves a minimization problem arising from a facility location problem, which is formulated based on the proximity of the vaccination sites to the barangays, the number of COVID-19 cases, and the population densities of the barangays. These objectives are formulated as a single optimization problem. As an alternative decision support tool, we develop a bi-objective optimization problem that considers distance and population coverage. Lastly, we propose a dynamic optimization approach that recalculates the optimal vaccination sites to account for the changes in the population of the barangays that have completed their vaccination program. A numerical scheme that solves the optimization problems is presented and the detailed description of the algorithms, which are coded in Python and MATLAB, are uploaded to a public repository. As an illustration, we apply our method to determine the optimal location of vaccination sites in San Juan, a municipality in the province of Batangas, in the Philippines. We hope that this study may guide the local government units in coming up with strategic and accessible plans for vaccine administration.

Keywords: COVID-19; Dynamic programming; Facility location; Genetic algorithm; Multi-objective optimization; Open street maps; Philippines; Vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Philippines / epidemiology
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines

Grants and funding

This work is funded by the project titled “Funding for the establishment of a computational research laboratory in the University of the Philippines Diliman Institute of Mathematics, pursuant to section 10(x) of Republic Act No. 11494” under the category “Grant for research on COVID-19 in the Philippines”. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.