Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) in vascular inflammatory diseases

Vasa. 2022 Nov;51(6):341-350. doi: 10.1024/0301-1526/a001031. Epub 2022 Oct 6.


Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) also known as amino oxidase copper containing 3 (AOC3) is a pro-inflammatory and versatile molecule with adhesive and enzymatic properties. VAP-1 is a primary amine oxidase belonging to the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) family, which catalyzes the oxidation of primary amines leading to the production of ammonium, formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and hydrogen peroxide. VAP-1 is mainly expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes and pericytes. It is involved in a repertoire of biological functions, e.g., immune cell extravasation, angiogenesis, and vascularization. Research into VAP-1 has intensified within the last decade on its role as a novel clinical biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target of vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis, stroke, diabetes, neurovascular disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's Disease), hepatic disease (e.g., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), and skin conditions (e.g., psoriasis). This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive review on VAP-1 focusing on the translational aspects of VAP-1. Compared to recent reviews, our review provides novel insights on VAP-1 and heart failure, stroke and frailty, diabetes, endometriosis, osteoarthritis, COVID-19, conjunctivitis associated systemic lupus erythematosus, hematopoietic stem cells, gliomas, treatment of colorectal cancer with a novel VAP-1 inhibitor (U-V269), promoting recovery of motor functions and habit learning with a novel VAP-1 inhibitor (PXS-4681A), and 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9, a labelled peptide of Siglec-9 (a VAP-1 ligand), which appears to be a safe PET tracer for inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, we present the emerging role of VAP-1 in pregnancy as a gatekeeper of immune cells, which are critical for spiral arterial remodeling, the deficiency of which could lead to vascular disorders of pregnancy such as preeclampsia. Future research should prioritize clinical trials on VAP-1 small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, thus, maximizing the potential of VAP-1 targeted therapy as well as research into sVAP-1 as a clinical biomarker of diseases and its prognosis.

Keywords: Vascular adhesion protein-1; amine oxidase; biomarker; cardiovascular; copper 3; inflammation; semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)* / therapeutic use
  • Atherosclerosis*
  • Biomarkers
  • COVID-19*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / therapeutic use
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Endothelial Cells
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Sialic Acid Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins / therapeutic use
  • Stroke*
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1


  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Biomarkers
  • Sialic Acid Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins