Routine Perioperative Esmolol After Infant Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: Single-Center Retrospective Study of Hemodynamics

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2022 Dec 1;23(12):e583-e589. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003088. Epub 2022 Oct 5.


Objectives: Currently, surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is associated with an 1.1% 30-day mortality rate. Those with junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) and restrictive right ventricular physiology have poorer outcomes. Routine postoperative adrenergic or inodilator therapy has been reported, while beta-blockade following cardiopulmonary bypass has not. This study evaluated routine perioperative treatment with esmolol in infants undergoing TOF repair.

Design: Retrospective chart review of the perioperative course following TOF repair.

Setting: Single-center case series describing perioperative management of TOF in a cardiac ICU.

Patients: This study reviewed all patients less than 18 months old who underwent TOF repair, excluding cases of TOF with absent pulmonary valve or atrioventricular septal defect, at our institution from June 2018 to April 2021.

Interventions: This review investigates the hemodynamic effects of esmolol following cardiopulmonary bypass for TOF repair.

Measurements and main results: Preoperative clinical characteristics and perioperative course were extracted from the medical record. Descriptive statistics were used. Twenty-six patients receiving perioperative esmolol after TOF repair were identified and included. Postoperative hemodynamic parameters were within a narrow range with minimal vasoactive support in most patients. Three of 26 patients experienced JET, and one of 26 of whom had a brief cardiac arrest. Median and interquartile range (IQR) for hospital and postoperative length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 6-9 d) and 6 days (IQR, 5-8 d), respectively. There were no 30-day or 1-year mortalities.

Conclusions: In this infant cohort, our experience is that the routine use of postoperative esmolol is associated with good cardiac output with minimal requirement for vasoactive support in most patients. We believe optimal postoperative management of infant TOF repair requires a meticulous multidisciplinary approach, which in our experience is enhanced with routine postoperative esmolol treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tachycardia, Ectopic Junctional*
  • Tetralogy of Fallot* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome


  • esmolol