Parallel roles of neuroinflammation in feline and human epilepsies

Vet J. 2022 Dec:290:105912. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105912. Epub 2022 Oct 6.


Autoimmune encephalitis refers to a group of disorders characterised by a non-infectious encephalitis, often with prominent seizures and surface neuronal autoantibodies. AE is an important cause of new-onset refractory status epilepticus in humans and is frequently responsive to immunotherapies including corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin G and rituximab. Recent research suggests that parallel autoantibodies can be detected in non-human mammalian species. The best documented example is leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-antibodies in domestic cats with limbic encephalitis (LE). In this review, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation and autoantibodies in human and feline epilepsy and LE.

Keywords: Autoimmune; Cats; Contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2); Encephalitis; Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoantibodies
  • Cat Diseases* / etiology
  • Cat Diseases* / therapy
  • Cats
  • Encephalitis* / therapy
  • Encephalitis* / veterinary
  • Epilepsy* / therapy
  • Epilepsy* / veterinary
  • Humans
  • Limbic Encephalitis* / veterinary
  • Mammals
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases / veterinary


  • Autoantibodies