Impella Versus Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump for High-Risk PCI: A Propensity-Adjusted Large-Scale Claims Dataset Analysis

Am J Cardiol. 2022 Dec 15:185:29-36. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.08.032. Epub 2022 Oct 7.

Abstract

Impella was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for use during high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs); however, its safety and efficacy compared with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has not been evaluated in contemporary practice and remains debated. We aimed to compare postapproval outcomes and costs of Impella versus IABP support for high-risk PCI in real-world practice across hospitals in the United States. We identified patients from the Premier Healthcare Database undergoing nonemergent Impella- or IABP-supported high-risk PCI. We used propensity adjustment to control baseline, procedure, and post-PCI medical treatment differences between treatment groups. We included patients undergoing nonemergent single-PCI procedures with either Impella or IABP support and excluded patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction or cardiogenic shock or requiring >1 mechanical support devices during index hospitalization. Outcomes included in-hospital survival, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiogenic shock, stroke, bleeding requiring transfusion, acute kidney injury, index hospitalization length of stay, and costs. From April 2016 to June 2019, a total of 48,179 patients were treated with Impella or IABP mechanical circulatory support at 304 hospitals in the United States. Among these, we identified 2,156 patients undergoing nonemergent high-risk PCI treated with Impella (n = 1,447) or IABP (n = 709). After propensity adjustment, Impella use was associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.36) and less MI (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.46) and cardiogenic shock (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.74). Stroke, bleeding requiring transfusion, and acute kidney injury were similar between groups. In conclusion, this Premier Healthcare Database propensity-adjusted analysis, Impella use during nonemergent high-risk PCI was associated with improved survival and reduced in-hospital MI and cardiogenic shock compared with IABP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Heart-Assist Devices* / adverse effects
  • Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Humans
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping
  • Myocardial Infarction*
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / methods
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / epidemiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / therapy
  • Stroke* / etiology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology