Classical Complement Pathway Inhibition in a "Human-On-A-Chip" Model of Autoimmune Demyelinating Neuropathies

Adv Ther (Weinh). 2022 Jun;5(6):2200030. doi: 10.1002/adtp.202200030. Epub 2022 Apr 5.


Chronic autoimmune demyelinating neuropathies are a group of rare neuromuscular disorders with complex, poorly characterized etiology. Here we describe a phenotypic, human-on-a-chip (HoaC) electrical conduction model of two rare autoimmune demyelinating neuropathies, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and explore the efficacy of TNT005, a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of the classical complement pathway. Patient sera was shown to contain anti-GM1 IgM and IgG antibodies capable of binding to human primary Schwann cells and induced pluripotent stem cell derived motoneurons. Patient autoantibody binding was sufficient to activate the classical complement pathway resulting in detection of C3b and C5b-9 deposits. A HoaC model, using a microelectrode array with directed axonal outgrowth over the electrodes treated with patient sera, exhibited reductions in motoneuron action potential frequency and conduction velocity. TNT005 rescued the serum-induced complement deposition and functional deficits while treatment with an isotype control antibody had no rescue effect. These data indicate that complement activation by CIDP and MMN patient serum is sufficient to mimic neurophysiological features of each disease and that complement inhibition with TNT005 was sufficient to rescue these pathological effects and provide efficacy data included in an investigational new drug application, demonstrating the model's translational potential.

Keywords: Rare disease; autoimmune demyelinating neuropathies; complement inhibition; drug efficacy; human-on-a-chip.