Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected people worldwide with the United States (US) with the largest number of reported cases currently. Previous studies in hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been limited by sample size.
Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database which is the largest inpatient database in the US was queried in the year 2020 for the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on ICD-10-CM U07.1 and associated outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. STATA 16.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: A weighted total of 1,678,995 hospitalizations for COVID-19 were identified. Median age of admitted patients with COVID-19 was 65 year (51-77) with 47.9% female and 49.2% White. Majority of the patients admitted were >65 years of age (49.3%). Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities (64.2% and 39.5%, respectively). Overall inpatient mortality was 13.2% and increasing to 55.9% in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Trend of inpatient mortality was significantly decreasing over the year. Predictors of inpatient mortality included age, male sex, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, arrythmia, obesity, and coagulopathy. Despite a lower proportion of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, Black, Hispanic, and Native Americans were at an increased adjusted odds of inpatient mortality. Disparity was also noted in income, with low median household income associated with higher risk of mortality.
Conclusion: In the largest US cohort with >1.6 million hospitalized COVID-19 patients in 2020, overall inpatient mortality was 13.6% with significantly higher mortality in ventilated patients. Significant socioeconomic and racial disparities were present with minorities at higher odds of mortality.
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