Standardization of Trauma, General Surgical Morbidity and Mortality Conferences: Development and Dissemination of a "Toolkit" in Peru

World J Surg. 2023 Jan;47(1):61-71. doi: 10.1007/s00268-022-06752-1. Epub 2022 Oct 10.


Background: Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) conferences allow clinicians to review adverse events and identify areas for improvement. There are few reports of structured M&M conferences in low- and middle-income countries and no report of collaborative efforts to standardize them.

Methods: The present study aims to gather general surgeons representing most of Peru's urban surgical care and, in collaboration, with trauma quality improvement experts develop a M&M conferences toolkit with the expectation that its diffusion impacts their reported clinical practice. Fourteen general surgeons developed a toolkit as part of a working group under the auspices of the Peruvian General Surgery Society. After three years, we conducted an anonymous written questionnaire to follow-up previous observations of quality improvement practices.

Results: A four-component toolkit was developed: Toolkit component #1: Conference logistics and case selection; Toolkit component #2: Documenting form; Toolkit component #3: Presentation template; and Toolkit component #4: Code of conduct. The toolkit was disseminated to 10 hospitals in 2016. Its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the results of surveys on quality improvement practices conducted in 2016, before toolkit dissemination (101 respondents) and 2019 (105 respondents). Lower attendance was reported by surgeons in 2019. However, in 2019, participants more frequently described "improve the system" as the perceived objective of M&M conferences (70.5% vs. 38.6% in 2016; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: We established a toolkit for the national dissemination of a standardized M&M conference. Three years following the initial assessment in Peru, we found similar practice patterns except for increased reporting of "system improvement" as the goal of M&M conferences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Peru