Gam-COVID-Vac, EpiVacCorona, and CoviVac effectiveness against lung injury during Delta and Omicron variant surges in St. Petersburg, Russia: a test-negative case-control study

Respir Res. 2022 Oct 10;23(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12931-022-02206-3.


Background: Monitoring vaccine effectiveness (VE) remains a priority for epidemiological research throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. VE against infection declines with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), but VE against the severe disease remains high. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines used in Russia against lung injury during Delta and Omicron VOC surges.

Methods: We designed a case-control study (test-negative design) to estimate VE against any (any volume of involved lung parenchyma) and severe (>50% of involved parenchyma) lung injury detected on computer tomography and associated with COVID-19 between October 1, 2021-April 28, 2022 (Delta VOC dominance period followed by Omicron dominance period). We included the data of patients with symptomatic confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection referred to the low-dose computer tomography triage centres.

Results: Among 23996 patients in the primary analysis, 13372 (55.7%) had any lung injury, and 338 (1.4%) had severe lung injury. The adjusted for age, sex and triage centre VE estimates against any lung injury were 56% (95% confidence interval 54-59) for two-dose Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V), 71% (68-74) for three-dose Gam-COVID-Vac (booster), 2% (-27 to 24) for EpiVacCorona, and 46% (37-53) for CoviVac. VE estimates against severe lung injury were 76% (67-82) for two-dose Gam-COVID-Vac (Sputnik V), 87% (76-93) for three-dose Gam-COVID-Vac, 36% (-63 to 75) for EpiVacCorona, and 80% (45-92) for CoviVac.

Conclusions: Gam-COVID-Vac remained effective against lung injury associated with COVID-19 during Delta and Omicron VOC surges, and one Gam-COVID-Vac booster could be seen as an appropriate option after a two-dose regimen. CoviVac was also effective against lung injury. EpiVacCorona use in population-based vaccination should be halted until effectiveness and efficacy evidence is provided. Trial registration The joint study of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in St. Petersburg was registered at (NCT04981405, date of registration-August 4, 2021).

Trial registration: NCT04981405 NCT00498140.

Keywords: COVID-19; Case–control study; Lung injury; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccine effectiveness.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Humans
  • Lung Injury*
  • Pandemics
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccines, Synthetic


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • EpiVacCorona vaccine
  • Vaccines, Synthetic

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants

Associated data