Background: The relationships between hoarding disorder (HD) and other neurological and psychiatric disorders remain largely unknown. Although psychiatric burden in those with HD is high, less is known about neurological disorders. Furthermore, which disorders are primarily associated with HD vs which can be better explained via a relationship with another disorder has not been determined. To address these questions, we examined comorbidity patterns of psychiatric and neurological disorders in a large online registry of adults using network analyses.
Methods: We first examined psychiatric comorbidity among 252 participants completing clinician administered psychiatric assessments. Using the Brain Health Registry (BHR) (N = 15,978), we next analyzed prevalence of self-reported neurological and psychiatric disorders among participants with no/minimal hoarding, subclinical hoarding, and clinically significant hoarding and used network analyses to identify direct and indirect relationships between HD and the assessed psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Results: The most prevalent comorbidity in clinically assessed participants with HD was major depressive disorder (MDD, 62%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, 32%). Network analyses in the BHR indicated that the strongest direct relationships with HD were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The relationships between HD and neurological disorders, including mild cognitive impairment, were weak or non-existent after controlling for other disorders.
Conclusions: ADHD, MDD, and OCD form a triad of psychiatric disorders directly associated with HD. Despite their high comorbidity rates, the associations among anxiety disorders and HD were weak or indirect.
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