Overconsumption of carbohydrate-rich food combined with adverse eating patterns contributes to the increasing incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in China. Therefore, we conducted a randomized trial to determine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), an 8-h time-restricted eating (TRE) schedule, and their combination on body weight and abdominal fat area (i.e., primary outcomes) and cardiometabolic outcomes in participants with MetS. Compared with baseline, all 3-month treatments significantly reduce body weight and subcutaneous fat area, but only TRE and combination treatment reduce visceral fat area (VFA), fasting blood glucose, uric acid (UA), and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, compared with changes of LCD, TRE and combination treatment further decrease body weight and VFA, while only combination treatment yields more benefits on glycemic control, UA, and dyslipidemia. In conclusion, without change of physical activity, an 8-h TRE with or without LCD can serve as an effective treatment for MetS (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04475822).
Keywords: abdominal obesity; low-carbohydrate diet; metabolic syndrome; time-restricted eating; visceral fat area.
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