Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children, Catalonia, Spain

Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Nov;28(11):2321-2325. doi: 10.3201/eid2811.211741. Epub 2022 Oct 11.


We analyzed the effect of COVID-19 on healthcare demand and invasive pneumococcal disease in children in Catalonia, Spain. Compared with 2018-2019, we noted large reductions in healthcare activities and incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in 2020. These changes likely resulted from nonpharmaceutical measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; COVID-19; Catalonia; SARS-CoV-2; Spain; bacteria; coronavirus disease; invasive pneumococcal disease; nonpharmaceutical measures; respiratory infections; serotype; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; viruses; zoonoses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumococcal Infections* / epidemiology
  • Pneumococcal Infections* / prevention & control
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Vaccines, Conjugate


  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Conjugate