Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are the leading cause of physical disability worldwide and a considerable socioeconomic burden. The lack of effective therapies has driven the development of novel bioengineering approaches that have recently started to gain clinical approvals. In this review, we first discuss the self-repair capacity of the musculoskeletal tissues and describe causes of musculoskeletal dysfunction. We then review the development of novel biomaterial, immunomodulatory, cellular, and gene therapies to treat musculoskeletal disorders. Last, we consider the recent regulatory changes and future areas of technological progress that can accelerate translation of these therapies to clinical practice.