Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) recommendations: strengths and concerns for future needs

Postgrad Med. 2023 May;135(4):327-333. doi: 10.1080/00325481.2022.2135893. Epub 2022 Oct 19.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is already the third leading cause of death worldwide and simultaneously a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (also known as GOLD) committee, has been created in 1997 to increase the awareness regarding the burden of COPD. GOLD recommendations have been contributing to diagnosis, managementz, and therapy of COPD since 2001. Through these years, by reviewing published articles, GOLD aimed to provide state-of-the-art information not only for pulmonologists, but also for non-respiratory physicians, and to encourage research on COPD. From 2011, GOLD annual reports have changed the way of COPD evaluation from based entirely on spirometric parameters to more clinical indices, such as the assessment of symptoms and dyspnea alongside with exacerbations. Moreover, according to recent developments in pathophysiology of COPD, there is a trend in identifying new preclinical stages, contributing to prevention and early COPD treatment. In the field of therapeutic algorithms, changes turn to a more personalized approach. However, it is not clear in what extent this personalized disease management would be feasible and the real challenge for current recommendations is to include more patient characteristics such as comorbidities and multidimensional scores in disease evaluation.

Keywords: COPD; GOLD; comorbidities; personalized medicine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Morbidity
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive* / therapy
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spirometry