A cluster randomized controlled trial of a modified vaccination clinical reminder for primary care providers

Health Psychol. 2023 Mar;42(3):195-204. doi: 10.1037/hea0001218. Epub 2022 Oct 13.


Objective: Adult vaccination rates in the United States fall short of national goals, and rates are particularly low for Black Americans. We tested a provider-focused vaccination uptake intervention: a modified electronic health record clinical reminder that bundled together three adult vaccination reminders, presented patient vaccination history, and included talking points for providers to address vaccine hesitancy.

Method: Primary care teams at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, who saw 28,941 patients during this period, were randomly assigned to receive either the modified clinical reminder (N = 44 teams) or the status quo (N = 40 teams).

Results: Uptake of influenza and other adult vaccinations was 1.6 percentage points higher in the intervention group, which was not statistically significant (confidence interval, CI [-1.3, 4.4], p = .28). The intervention had similar effects on Black and White patients and did not reduce the disparity in vaccination rates between these groups.

Conclusion: Provider-focused interventions are a promising way to address vaccine hesitancy, but they may need to be more intensive than a modified clinical reminder to have appreciable effects on vaccination uptake. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03950986.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Influenza, Human* / prevention & control
  • Primary Health Care
  • Reminder Systems
  • United States
  • Vaccination


  • Influenza Vaccines

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03950986