Effect of Hybrid Nanofluids Concentration and Swirling Flow on Jet Impingement Cooling

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2022 Sep 20;12(19):3258. doi: 10.3390/nano12193258.


Nanofluids have become increasingly salient in heat transfer applications due to their promising properties that can be tailored to meet specific needs. The use of nanofluids in jet impingement flows has piqued the interest of numerous researchers owing to the significant heat transfer enhancement, which is vital in the technological dependence era in every aspect of life, particularly in engineering applications and industry. The aim of this current work is to investigate the effect of hybrid nanofluids concentration and swirling flow on jet impingement cooling through experimental approach. The hybrid nanofluids are prepared through a two-step method and the characterization process is carried out to study the stability and morphological structure of the sample prepared. The prepared hybrid nanofluids are then used as a cooling agent to evaluate the heat transfer performance of jet impinging system. The experimental investigation compares the performance of swirling impinging jets (SIJs) with conventional impinging jets (CIJs) under various jet-to-plate distance (H/D) ratios and nanofluid concentrations. The effects of adding surfactant on nanofluids are also examined. The heat transfer performance of ZnO/water and CuO/water mono-nanofluids are used as comparison to ZnO-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid. The results show that the thermal performance of ZnO-CuO/water hybrid nanofluid is better than that of the mono-nanofluids. Furthermore, as the mass fraction increases, the heat transfer rates improve. The effect of heat transmission by swirling impinging jets is better than that of conventional impinging jets under similar operating conditions. At H/D = 4, Re = 20,000 and hybrid nanofluid concentration at 0.1% under SIJ is observed to have the highest overall Nusselt number.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement; hybrid nanofluid; jet impingement; swirl flow.