Assessment Strategies to Evaluate the Mediterranean Lifestyle: A Systematic Review

Nutrients. 2022 Oct 8;14(19):4179. doi: 10.3390/nu14194179.


The Mediterranean Lifestyle (MLS) has been related to better health and quality of life. However, there is no consensus on how to assess this lifestyle. The main objective of this work was to systematically review the methodology used in different studies on the evaluation of the MLS. The specific objectives were (1) to analyze the MLS components evaluated in previous studies, (2) to explore the assessment instruments available for the analysis of the MLS, and (3) to identify the psychometric properties of these instruments. The search was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases with the purpose of identifying those published articles in which the MLS was assessed. The review included 26 studies linked to the assessment of the MLS. Of these studies, only four exclusively used a tool to analyze MLS components globally. These studies included two questionnaires and three different indexes. None of them, however, evaluated all of the recognized MLS components, and food preparation was the least frequently evaluated component. Given the clear importance of analyzing MLS adherence and the lack of consensus in previous research, an evaluation tool needs to be created to comprehensively assess all of the MLS dimensions by means of appropriate psychometric properties.

Keywords: Mediterranean Lifestyle; evaluation; index; questionnaire.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Life Style*
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Quality of Life*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.