Energy Drinks Decrease Left Ventricular Efficiency in Healthy Children and Teenagers: A Randomized Trial

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Sep 23;22(19):7209. doi: 10.3390/s22197209.


Background: Minors are considered the main consumer group of energy drinks (EDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of ED consumption on left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and efficiency in healthy children and teenagers. Methods: This study was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. Study participants consumed a weight-adjusted amount of an ED or a placebo on two consecutive days. LV hemodynamics and efficiency parameters were evaluated non-invasively by generating LV pressure−volume loops (PVLs) through simultaneous echocardiography and blood pressure measurement. Results: A total of 24 children and teenagers (14.90 ± 2.27 years, 13 male) were included in the present study. Conventional echocardiographic parameters of LV function did not show significant differences between both beverage groups. The non-invasive generation of LV PVLs revealed a significantly lower cardiac efficiency 240 min after the ED consumption compared to the placebo intake (140.72 (133.21−149.73) mmHg vs. 135.60 (124.78−140.33) mmHg, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Acute ED consumption is associated with a significantly lower cardiac efficiency in healthy minors. The generation of non-invasive LV PVLs might be beneficial in the assessment of subtle changes in LV efficiency. Further studies need to investigate the influence of chronic ED consumption on LV function and morphology.

Keywords: echocardiography; energy drinks; left ventricular dysfunction; left ventricular function; pediatrics; randomized trial.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Energy Drinks*
  • Heart Ventricles
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology